Jonathan Petitcolas - Photo : © Lucille Caballero

Jonathan Petitcolas

JavaScript and open-source enthusiast

Using HTTPs with Custom Domain Name on GitHub Pages

GutHub Octocat, by Side-7
GutHub Octocat, by Side-7

When writing my post about taking a screenshot with Webcam, I encountered some issues when embedding iframes using getUserMedia API. Indeed, some Mixed Content warnings were triggered and code was not executed. This is because both this blog was served in HTTP. Using HTTPs solves this issue.

It is a long time since I wanted to migrate my GitHub Pages blog to HTTPs. Indeed, using this protocol has a lot of advantages:

GitHub supports HTTPs natively, but only for domain names. It doesn’t work with custom domain names. Fortunately, CloudFlare, a free (for basic needs) DNS/CDN, provides a solution to use HTTPs with a custom domain name.

Configuring GitHub Pages

First step is to configure your GitHub repository. Go on the Settings page, and let’s ensure our repository uses a custom domain name and don’t use HTTPs (both options are incompatible): GitHub configuration

We are now done with GitHub configuration.

Configuring CloudFlare

Migrating our DNS Server to CloudFlare

Let’s go on CloudFlare to setup a new site, using our custom domain name. At the end of the wizard, we need to update our domain name settings to use CloudFlare DNS instead of your current ones. They will then import all our existing configuration on their server.

Just ensure that www CNAME record redirects to your GitHub pages URL. CNAME is just an alias. In this case, we tell DNS to respond address of whenever is queried. DNS configuration

Forcing HTTPs on our GitHub Pages

Now that CloudFlare handles our DNS, we need to force all requests to use HTTPs. On the Crypto tab, just change the SSL option to Full. To better understand each of these options, here is a picture taken from CloudFlare blog:

CloudFlare SSL Modes

Using flexible SSL, all communications between CloudFlare servers and GitHub ones are not encrypted. Not really secured, even if your domain would be served in HTTPs.

However, full modes encrypt all communication streams, even behind CloudFlare servers. In this case, hosting server needs to supports SSL. We need to stay in loose mode, as GitHub won’t validate the SSL certificate with a custom domain name.

Our site is now (depending of DNS propagation time, up to 48 hours) served in HTTPs and is compatible with faster HTTP/2.

Force Redirection to HTTPs Version

Currently, we can access our website on both http and https protocols. Yet, for duplicate content issues, and for visitor’s sake, let’s use https (and https only) for everyone.

We are going to add three rules for our domain (fortunately, we have three rules with the free plan): CloudFlare Page Rules

As a result, if we go on…, we will be redirected to a cached version of….

Note the use of the wildcard * on all rules to match every URL. You can retrieve the value replaced by the wildcard using the regex-like [$1, $2, …] arguments.

About CloudFlare Caching

CloudFlare is also a CDN (Content Delivery Network). It has a lot of servers around the world and optimizes the way it delivers our data. To take profit of it, we just had to enable caching using page rules. We can configure it more finely via the Caching tab.

We cache every requests to GitHub for 4 hours (by default). Instead, all our requests would be served by closest CloudFlare CDN server, saving fractions of seconds of international data transit. Our static website is already blazing fast, let’s increase again its reactivity.

As we asked for a total cache, we need to purge cached pages at each change. We can either do it using CloudFlare built-in API, or manually. As I don’t publish several posts a day, I can wait a few hours before seeing my post being publicly available. Or I just purge the cache using CloudFlare user interface.

Purging CloudFlare Cache

Note there is also a Development Mode feature. It simply disables the cache layer, allowing you to check in realtime all your changes. It is especially useful if you need to debug in production. But nobody does this kind of thing, right? ;)

Updating Disqus Comments

So, our GitHub Pages are now served under HTTPs using a CDN for better performances. Yet, all our Disqus comments have disappeared. Disqus is a comment system provider pluggable on any websites, including the static ones. It saves comments according to page URL (at least without any specific configuration). As we switched from http to https, URLs are not the same, and we lost all our comments.

Fortunately, Disqus provides a way to deal with URL changes, using their Url Mapper. First, go on Migrate Threads page and click on “Start Url Mapper” button. Then click on the “download a CSV here” link. We now have to wait a few minutes, time for a download link to be sent to our email.

Once downloaded, let’s open it in our spreadsheet software. We may use awk, but that’s too geeky, so let’s be pragmatic. ;)

cd ~/Downloads
gunzip jonathanpetitcolas-2016-11-08T07-05-36.582361-links.csv.gz

# open it in your spreadsheet software
gnome-open jonathanpetitcolas-2016-11-08T07-05-36.582361-links.csv

Then, we just need to replace http:// by https:// using the following formula (on LibreOffice):

=SUBSTITUTE(A1,"http://", "https://")

Save your file, and submit it to the Url Mapper. Check your changes, and start migration. All your previous comments should soon be back on your website.

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